Conventions Used for Transliterating Arabic Words

Effort has been made to keep the use of Arabic words to a minimum; however, there are many Islamic terms and names that should be retained in their original form instead of being translated. Wherever such a term or name has occurred, a footnote has been used to explain the term at least at the first occurrence, and every now and then afterwards, as needed. To spell such Arabic words and Islamic terms, the following convention of transliteration has been used:
Short Arabic vowels have been represented by “a” for “Fatĥa”, “i” for “Kasra” and “u” for “Dhamma”; while long Arabic vowels have been transcribed by the use of double English vowels (e.g. Allaah, Deen, Aboo).

Arabic letters with no equivalent in English have been transcribed as follows:
Ĥ for Ĥaa ح
Kh for Khaa خ
Dz for Dzaal ذ
Ŝ for Ŝaad ص
Dh for Dhaad ض
Ŧ for Ŧaa ط
Ž for Žaa ظ
for ‘ayn ع
Gh for Ghayn غ
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